Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Group
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Climate dimension of natural halogens in the Earth system: Past, present, future

ERC Consolidator Grant ERC-2016-COG 726349


Naturally-emitted very short-lived halogens (VSLH) have a profound impact on the chemistry and composition of the atmosphere, destroying greenhouse gases and altering aerosol production, which together can change the Earth´s radiative balance. Therefore, natural halogens possess leverage to influence climate, although their contribution to climate change is not well established and most climate models have yet to consider their effects. Also, there is increasing evidence that natural halogens i) impact on the air quality of coastal cities,  ii) accelerates the atmospheric deposition of mercury (a toxic heavy metal) and iii) that their natural ocean and ice emissions are controlled by biological and photochemical mechanisms that may respond to climate changes. Motivated by the above, this project aims to quantify the so far unrecognized natural halogen-climate feedbacks and the impact of these feedbacks on global atmospheric oxidizing capacity (AOC) and radiative forcing (RF) across pre-industrial, present and future climates. Answering these questions is essential to predict if these climate-mediated feedbacks can reduce or amplify future climate change. To this end we will develop a multidisciplinary research approach using laboratory and field observations and models interactively that will allow us to peel apart the detailed physical processes behind the contribution of natural halogens to global climate change. Furthermore, the work plan also involves examining past-future climate impacts of natural halogens within a holistic Earth System model, where we will develop the multidirectional halogen interactions in the land-ocean-ice-biosphere-atmosphere coupled system. This will provide a breakthrough in our understanding of the importance of these natural processes for the composition and oxidation capacity of the Earth´s atmosphere and climate, both in the presence and absence of human influence.

Publications list:

Abrahamsson, K., Granfors, A., Ahnoff, M., Cuevas, C. A. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Organic bromine compounds produced in sea ice in Antarctic winter, Nat. Commun., 9(1), doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07062-8, 2018.

Archibald, A. T., Neu, J. L., Elshorbany, Y. F., Cooper, O. R., Young, P. J., Akiyoshi, H., Cox, R. A., Coyle, M., Derwent, R. G., Deushi, M., Finco, A., Frost, G. J., Galbally, I. E., Gerosa, G., Granier, C., Griffiths, P. T., Hossaini, R., Hu, L., Jöckel, P., Josse, B., Lin, M. Y., Mertens, M., Morgenstern, O., Naja, M., Naik, V., Oltmans, S., Plummer, D. A., Revell, L. E., Saiz-Lopez, A., Saxena, P., Shin, Y. M., Shahid, I., Shallcross, D., Tilmes, S., Trickl, T., Wallington, T. J., Wang, T., Worden, H. M. and Zeng, G.: Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: A critical review of changes in the tropospheric ozone burden and budget from 1850 to 2100, Elem. Sci. Anthr., 8(1), 34, doi:10.1525/elementa.2020.034, 2020.

Baccarini, A., Karlsson, L., Dommen, J., Duplessis, P., Vüllers, J., Brooks, I. M., Saiz-Lopez, A., Salter, M., Tjernström, M., Baltensperger, U., Zieger, P. and Schmale, J.: Frequent new particle formation over the high Arctic pack ice by enhanced iodine emissions, Nat. Commun., 11(1), doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18551-0, 2020.

Badia, A., Iglesias-Suarez, F., Fernandez, R. P., Cuevas, C. A., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., Griffiths, P. T., Tarasick, D. W., Liu, J. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: The Role of Natural Halogens in Global Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry and Budget Under Different 21st Century Climate Scenarios, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 126(20), e2021JD034859, doi:, 2021.

Baek, Y. S., Kim, K., Saiz-Lopez, A., Min, D. W., Kim, B., Choi, W. and Choi, C. H.: Entangled iodine and hydrogen peroxide formation in ice, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 22(29), 16532–16535, doi:10.1039/D0CP02966A, 2020.

Barrera, J. A., Fernandez, R. P., Iglesias-Suarez, F., Cuevas, C. A., Lamarque, J.-F. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Seasonal impact of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons on lowermost stratospheric ozone between 60oN and 60oS during the 21st century, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20(13), 8083–8102, doi:10.5194/acp-20-8083-2020, 2020.

Beck, L. J., Sarnela, N., Junninen, H., Hoppe, C. J. M., Garmash, O., Bianchi, F., Riva, M., Rose, C., Peräkylä, O., Wimmer, D., Kausiala, O., Jokinen, T., Ahonen, L., Mikkilä, J., Hakala, J., He, X.-C., Kontkanen, J., Wolf, K. K. E., Cappelletti, D., Mazzola, M., Traversi, R., Petroselli, C., Viola, A. P., Vitale, V., Lange, R., Massling, A., Nøjgaard, J. K., Krejci, R., Karlsson, L., Zieger, P., Jang, S., Lee, K., Vakkari, V., Lampilahti, J., Thakur, R. C., Leino, K., Kangasluoma, J., Duplissy, E.-M., Siivola, E., Marbouti, M., Tham, Y. J., Saiz-Lopez, A., Petäjä, T., Ehn, M., Worsnop, D. R., Skov, H., Kulmala, M., Kerminen, V.-M. and Sipilä, M.: Differing Mechanisms of New Particle Formation at Two Arctic Sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(4), e2020GL091334, doi:, 2021.

Corella, J. P., Maffezzoli, N., Cuevas, C. A., Vallelonga, P., Spolaor, A., Cozzi, G., Müller, J., Vinther, B., Barbante, C., Kjær, H. A., Edwards, R. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Holocene atmospheric iodine evolution over the North Atlantic, Clim. Past, 15(6), 2019–2030, doi:10.5194/cp-15-2019-2019, 2019.

Corella, J. P., Maffezzoli, N., Spolaor, A., Vallelonga, P., Cuevas, C. A., Scoto, F., Müller, J., Vinther, B., Kjær, H. A., Cozzi, G., Edwards, R., Barbante, C. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Climate changes modulated the history of Arctic iodine during the Last Glacial Cycle, Nat. Commun., 13(1), 88, doi:10.1038/s41467-021-27642-5, 2022.

Cuevas, C. A., Maffezzoli, N., Corella, J. P., Spolaor, A., Vallelonga, P., Kjær, H. A., Simonsen, M., Winstrup, M., Vinther, B., Horvat, C., Fernandez, R. P., Kinnison, D., Lamarque, J. F., Barbante, C. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Rapid increase in atmospheric iodine levels in the North Atlantic since the mid-20th century, Nat. Commun., 9(1), doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03756-1, 2018.

Cuevas, C. A., Fernandez, R. P., Kinnison, D. E., Li, Q., Lamarque, J.-F., Trabelsi, T., Francisco, J. S., Solomon, S. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: The influence of iodine on the Antarctic stratospheric ozone hole, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 119(7), doi:10.1073/pnas.2110864119, 2022.

Fernandez, R. P., Carmona-Balea, A., Cuevas, C. A., Barrera, J. A., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., Blaszczak-Boxe, C., Kim, K., Choi, W., Hay, T., Blechschmidt, A.-M., Schönhardt, A., Burrows, J. P. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Modeling the Sources and Chemistry of Polar Tropospheric Halogens (Cl, Br, and I) Using the CAM-Chem Global Chemistry-Climate Model, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 11(7), 2259–2289, doi:10.1029/2019MS001655, 2019.

Fernandez, R. P., Barrera, J. A., López-Noreña, A. I., Kinnison, D. E., Nicely, J., Salawitch, R. J., Wales, P. A., Toselli, B. M., Tilmes, S., Lamarque, J.-F., Cuevas, C. A. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Intercomparison Between Surrogate, Explicit, and Full Treatments of VSL Bromine Chemistry Within the CAM-Chem Chemistry-Climate Model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 48(4), e2020GL091125, doi:, 2021.

Francés-Monerris, A., Carmona-García, J., Acuña, A. U., Dávalos, J. Z., Cuevas, C. A., Kinnison, D. E., Francisco, J. S., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Roca-Sanjuán, D.: Photodissociation Mechanisms of Major Mercury(II) Species in the Atmospheric Chemical Cycle of Mercury, Angew. Chemie Int. Ed., 59(19), 7605–7610, doi:10.1002/anie.201915656, 2020.

Gómez Martín, J. C., Lewis, T. R., Blitz, M. A., Plane, J. M. C., Kumar, M., Francisco, J. S. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: A gas-to-particle conversion mechanism helps to explain atmospheric particle formation through clustering of iodine oxides, Nat. Commun., 11(1), 4521, doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18252-8, 2020.

Gómez Martín, J. C., Saiz-Lopez, A., Cuevas, C. A., Fernandez, R. P., Gilfedder, B., Weller, R., Baker, A. R., Droste, E. and Lai, S.: Spatial and Temporal Variability of Iodine in Aerosol, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 126(9), e2020JD034410, doi:, 2021.

Gómez Martín, J. C., Lewis, T. R., James, A. D., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Plane, J. M. C.: Insights into the Chemistry of Iodine New Particle Formation: The Role of Iodine Oxides and the Source of Iodic Acid, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 144(21), 9240–9253, doi:10.1021/jacs.1c12957, 2022a.

Gómez Martín, J. C., Saiz-Lopez, A., Cuevas, C. A., Baker, A. R. and Fernández, R. P.: On the speciation of iodine in marine aerosol, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., n/a(n/a), e2021JD036081, doi:, 2022b.

Huang, Y., Lu, X., Fung, J. C. H., Sarwar, G., Li, Z., Li, Q., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Lau, A. K. H.: Effect of bromine and iodine chemistry on tropospheric ozone over Asia-Pacific using the CMAQ model, Chemosphere, 262, 127595, doi:, 2021.

Iglesias-Suarez, F., Badia, A., Fernandez, R. P., Cuevas, C. A., Kinnison, D. E., Tilmes, S., Lamarque, J.-F., Long, M. C., Hossaini, R. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Natural halogens buffer tropospheric ozone in a changing climate, Nat. Clim. Chang., doi:10.1038/s41558-019-0675-6, 2020.

Koenig, T. K., Baidar, S., Campuzano-Jost, P., Cuevas, C. A., Dix, B., Fernandez, R. P., Guo, H., Hall, S. R., Kinnison, D., Nault, B. A., Ullmann, K., Jimenez, J. L., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Volkamer, R.: Quantitative detection of iodine in the stratosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 117(4), doi:10.1073/pnas.1916828117, 2020.

Koenig, T. K., Volkamer, R., Apel, E. C., Bresch, J. F., Cuevas, C. A., Dix, B., Eloranta, E. W., Fernandez, R. P., Hall, S. R., Hornbrook, R. S., Pierce, R. B., Reeves, J. M., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Ullmann, K.: Ozone depletion due to dust release of iodine in the free troposphere, Sci. Adv., 7(52), eabj6544, doi:10.1126/sciadv.abj6544, 2021.

Lewis, T. R., Martín, J. C. G., Blitz, M. A., Cuevas, C. A., Plane, J. M. C. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Determination of the absorption cross sections of higher-order iodine oxides at 355 and 532 nm, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20(18), doi:10.5194/acp-20-10865-2020, 2020.

Li, Q., Badia, A., Wang, T., Sarwar, G., Fu, X., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Fung, J., Cuevas, C. A., Wang, S., Zhou, B. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Potential Effect of Halogens on Atmospheric Oxidation and Air Quality in China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., n/a(n/a), e2019JD032058, doi:10.1029/2019JD032058, 2020.

Li, Q., Badia, A., Fernandez, R. P., Mahajan, A. S., López-Noreña, A. I., Zhang, Y., Wang, S., Puliafito, E., Cuevas, C. A. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Chemical Interactions Between Ship-Originated Air Pollutants and Ocean-Emitted Halogens, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 126(4), e2020JD034175, doi:, 2021a.

Li, Q., Fu, X., Peng, X., Wang, W., Badia, A., Fernandez, R. P., Cuevas, C. A., Mu, Y., Chen, J., Jimenez, J. L., Wang, T. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Halogens Enhance Haze Pollution in China, Environ. Sci. \& Technol., 55(20), 13625–13637, doi:10.1021/acs.est.1c01949, 2021b.

Li, Q., Fernandez, R. P., Hossaini, R., Iglesias-Suarez, F., Cuevas, C. A., Apel, E. C., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Reactive halogens increase the global methane lifetime and radiative forcing in the 21st century, Nat. Commun., 13(1), 2768, doi:10.1038/s41467-022-30456-8, 2022.

Maffezzoli, N., Vallelonga, P., Edwards, R., Saiz-Lopez, A., Turetta, C., Kjær, H. A., Barbante, C., Vinther, B. and Spolaor, A.: A 120,000-year record of sea ice in the North Atlantic?, Clim. Past, 15(6), 2031–2051, doi:10.5194/cp-15-2031-2019, 2019.

Mahajan, A. S., Li, Q., Inamdar, S., Ram, K., Badia, A. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Modelling the impacts of iodine chemistry on the northern Indian Ocean marine boundary layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21(11), 8437–8454, doi:10.5194/acp-21-8437-2021, 2021.

Peng, X., Wang, W., Xia, M., Chen, H., Ravishankara, A. R., Li, Q., Saiz-Lopez, A., Liu, P., Zhang, F., Zhang, C., Xue, L., Wang, X., George, C., Wang, J., Mu, Y., Chen, J. and Wang, T.: An unexpected large continental source of reactive bromine and chlorine with significant impact on wintertime air quality, Natl. Sci. Rev., 8(7), nwaa304, doi:10.1093/nsr/nwaa304, 2021.

Peng, X., Wang, T., Wang, W., Ravishankara, A. R., George, C., Xia, M., Cai, M., Li, Q., Salvador, C. M., Lau, C., Lyu, X., Poon, C. N., Mellouki, A., Mu, Y., Hallquist, M., Saiz-Lopez, A., Guo, H., Herrmann, H., Yu, C., Dai, J., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Yu, A., Leung, K., Lee, S. and Chen, J.: Photodissociation of particulate nitrate as a source of daytime tropospheric Cl2, Nat. Commun., 13(1), 939, doi:10.1038/s41467-022-28383-9, 2022.

Saiz-Lopez, A., Sitkiewicz, S. P., Roca-Sanjuán, D., Oliva-Enrich, J. M., Dávalos, J. Z., Notario, R., Jiskra, M., Xu, Y., Wang, F., Thackray, C. P., Sunderland, E. M., Jacob, D. J., Travnikov, O., Cuevas, C. A., Acuña, A. U., Rivero, D., Plane, J. M. C., Kinnison, D. E. and Sonke, J. E.: Photoreduction of gaseous oxidized mercury changes global atmospheric mercury speciation, transport and deposition, Nat. Commun., 9(1), doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07075-3, 2018.

Saiz-Lopez, A., Acuña, A. U., Trabelsi, T., Carmona-García, J., Dávalos, J. Z., Rivero, D., Cuevas, C. A., Kinnison, D. E., Sitkiewicz, S. P., Roca-Sanjuán, D. and Francisco, J. S.: Gas-Phase Photolysis of Hg(I) Radical Species: A New Atmospheric Mercury Reduction Process, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 141(22), 8698–8702, doi:10.1021/jacs.9b02890, 2019.

Saiz-Lopez, A., Travnikov, O., Sonke, J. E., Thackray, C. P., Jacob, D. J., Carmona-García, J., Francés-Monerris, A., Roca-Sanjuán, D., Acuña, A. U., Dávalos, J. Z., Cuevas, C. A., Jiskra, M., Wang, F., Bieser, J., Plane, J. M. C. and Francisco, J. S.: Photochemistry of oxidized Hg(I) and Hg(II) species suggests missing mercury oxidation in the troposphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 117(49), 30949 LP – 30956, doi:10.1073/pnas.1922486117, 2020.

Spolaor, A., Burgay, F., Fernandez, R. P., Turetta, C., Cuevas, C. A., Kim, K., Kinnison, D. E., Lamarque, J.-F., de Blasi, F., Barbaro, E., Corella, J. P., Vallelonga, P., Frezzotti, M., Barbante, C. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Antarctic ozone hole modifies iodine geochemistry on the Antarctic Plateau, Nat. Commun., 12(1), 5836, doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26109-x, 2021.

Takashima, H., Kanaya, Y., Kato, S., Friedrich, M. M., Van Roozendael, M., Taketani, F., Miyakawa, T., Komazaki, Y., Cuevas, C. A., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Sekiya, T.: Full latitudinal marine atmospheric measurements of iodine monoxide, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22(6), 4005–4018, doi:10.5194/acp-22-4005-2022, 2022.

Tham, Y. J., He, X.-C., Li, Q., Cuevas, C. A., Shen, J., Kalliokoski, J., Yan, C., Iyer, S., Lehmusjärvi, T., Jang, S., Thakur, R. C., Beck, L., Kemppainen, D., Olin, M., Sarnela, N., Mikkilä, J., Hakala, J., Marbouti, M., Yao, L., Li, H., Huang, W., Wang, Y., Wimmer, D., Zha, Q., Virkanen, J., Spain, T. G., O'Doherty, S., Jokinen, T., Bianchi, F., Petäjä, T., Worsnop, D. R., Mauldin, R. L., Ovadnevaite, J., Ceburnis, D., Maier, N. M., Kulmala, M., O’Dowd, C., Dal Maso, M., Saiz-Lopez, A. and Sipilä, M.: Direct field evidence of autocatalytic iodine release from atmospheric aerosol, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 118(4), e2009951118, doi:10.1073/pnas.2009951118, 2021.

Veres, P. R., Andrew Neuman, J., Bertram, T. H., Assaf, E., Wolfe, G. M., Williamson, C. J., Weinzierl, B., Tilmes, S., Thompson, C. R., Thames, A. B., Schroder, J. C., Saiz-Lopez, A., Rollins, A. W., Roberts, J. M., Price, D., Peischl, J., Nault, B. A., Møller, K. H., Miller, D. O., Meinardi, S., Li, Q., Lamarque, J. F., Kupc, A., Kjaergaard, H. G., Kinnison, D., Jimenez, J. L., Jernigan, C. M., Hornbrook, R. S., Hills, A., Dollner, M., Day, D. A., Cuevas, C. A., Campuzano-Jost, P., Burkholder, J., Paul Bui, T., Brune, W. H., Brown, S. S., Brock, C. A., Bourgeois, I., Blake, D. R., Apel, E. C. and Ryerson, T. B.: Global airborne sampling reveals a previously unobserved dimethyl sulfide oxidation mechanism in the marine atmosphere, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 117(9), doi:10.1073/pnas.1919344117, 2020.

Zhang, J., Wuebbles, D. J., Kinnison, D. E. and Saiz-Lopez, A.: Revising the Ozone Depletion Potentials Metric for Short-Lived Chemicals Such as CF3I and CH3I, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 125(9), e2020JD032414, doi:, 2020.


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